Zhuge Liang (181-234), also known as Fulong, Han Chinese, native of Yangdu, Langya, Xuzhou (present-day Yinan County, Linyi City, Shandong), was the prime minister of the Shu Han dynasty during the Three Kingdoms period, an outstanding politician, military strategist, essayist, and calligrapher.
Zhuge Liang followed his uncle Zhuge Xuan to Jingzhou in his early years, and after Zhuge Xuan's death, Zhuge Liang lived in seclusion in Longzhong. Liu Bei attached himself to Liu Biao of Jingzhou and Gu Maolu, and Zhuge Liang proposed to Liu Bei to occupy Jingzhou and Yizhou, and join Sun Quan against Cao Cao's Longzhong rivalry, and Liu Bei, according to Zhuge Liang's strategy, successfully occupied the lands of Jingzhou and Yizhou, forming a three-legged confrontation with Sun Quan and Cao Cao. In the first year of Zhang Wu (221), Liu Bei declared himself emperor and appointed Zhuge Liang as prime minister. After Liu Bei lost the Battle of Wu Yuling and Yiling, Liu Bei was alone with Zhuge Liang in Yong'an. After Liu Chan succeeded to the throne, he made Zhuge Liang the Marquis of Wuxiang and the pastor of Yizhou. Zhuge Liang was diligent and prudent, and all large and small political affairs must be handled personally, and the rewards and punishments were strict; alliance with Soochow to improve relations with all ethnic groups in the southwest; Implement the policy of stockpiling fields and strengthen war readiness. Five Northern Expeditions to the Central Plains were carried out, but the goal of reviving the Han dynasty was not achieved. In the twelfth year of Jianxing (234), he died in Wuzhangyuan (present-day Qishan, Baoji City, Shaanxi Province) at the age of 54. The later lord Liu Chan posthumously named him "Marquis of Zhongwu", and later generations often used the honorific title of "Marquis of Wu". Huan Wen of the Eastern Jin Dynasty was posthumously honoured as "King of Wuxing".
He was born in a turbulent time in 181 in Shandong Province. After he was born, a large-scale rebellion of the Yellow Turbans and the Five Pecks of Rice army ravaged the country. Then, when he was 14, Cao Cao invaded Shandong. His family was forced to flee.
This was a time of natural disasters, regional conflicts, and political crisis. There were frequent assassinations and open conflicts between rival ruling groups of the dynastic court. In Hubei, he farmed during the day and studied at night. It is said that he developed friendships with the local educated people.
As the prime minister, Zhuge Liang knows very well: "The house leaks below, stops at the top, the upper leaks endlessly, and the bottom cannot live." He not only took the lead in building a clean government and planting a banner, but also regarded clean government as an important political and legal construction, which had a major impact on all aspects of politics, economy, military and culture in the Shu Han Dynasty. The construction of a clean government during the Zhuge Liang period was first manifested in the strict control of the scale of the Shu Han Palace City and the scale of Huiling.
During Zhuge Liang's reign, young queen lords often wanted to choose to fill the harem. At that time, Dong Yun, who was in charge of palace affairs, thought that the number of concubines of the ancient Son of Heaven was only twelve, and now that the concubines were ready, it was not appropriate to gain it, and he would not listen to it in the end. The number of queen princesses is a complex issue, involving many issues such as the size of the palace, which is beyond Dong Yun's decision. At that time, "and the preparation was gone, the heir was young and weak, everything was small, and the light was specialized." "There are no details in politics, and saltiness depends on light."
Zhuge Liang created a political atmosphere of honesty and service in the upper echelons of the Shu Han dynasty, and Shu officials followed Zhuge Liang's example to be thrifty and abstain from luxury, creating an entire era of clean government.
The main achievement of the military expert Zhuge Liang was his clear thinking on administering the army, that is, administering the army with clarity and faith-based, and he also wrote many military works, such as "Southern Expedition", "Northern Expedition", and "Northern Exit", which made certain contributions to China's military circles. Zhuge Liang also had dexterity in technical inventions, such as the improved crossbow. Zhuge Liang also deduced the art of war and made eight formations, which were still highly respected by the Tang dynasty general Li Jing.
Zhuge Liang, character Kongming, Wolong, Prime Minister of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period, outstanding politician, military strategist, literary scholar, inventor. After his death, the later lord Liu Chan posthumously became the Marquis of Zhongwu, and later generations often used the honorific title of Marquis of Wu. Zhuge Liang's representative prose works include "The Departure Table" and "The Book of Commandments". He once invented wooden bull flowing horses, Kong Ming lanterns, etc., and transformed the crossbow, called Zhuge Lianxiao, which can fire ten arrows in one crossbow. Zhuge Liang devoted his life to death, and is a representative figure of loyal ministers and wise men in traditional Chinese culture.
In 1991, with the approval of the local government, Wuhou District of Chengdu, Sichuan Province was officially established, and the name of the district was taken from the Wuhou Temple (originally Han Zhaolie Temple, Zhaolie was Liu Bei's posthumous nickname) in the district. Wuhou Temple was named after Zhuge Liang's title as Marquis of Wuxiang during his lifetime, and merged with Zhaolie Temple in the early Ming Dynasty, becoming one of the famous historical tourist attractions in Shuzhong.
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